You might have already noted the main 8 colorations available in the Balinese & Siamese breed. The four
traditional color points and four Lynx points totaling 8, but there are more colorations available; some
currently being established by cat
fanciers here in the United States and abroad, including Azureys Cats.
The red point or “flame point”
Balinese cat is that with pointed markings of the red/orange color. The term “flame” came about due
to the similarity in coloring to a flame, and the Balinese shows this example very well with its plumed
tail resembling a fiery torch. There's no natural form of a red point within Siamese or Balinese lines. To achieve the look of this color point, past Siamese/Balinese cat fanciers and breeders mixed purebred Siamese/Balinese lines with an orange/red tabby cat to produce the red colored points in the Siamese/Balinese breed.
Red-pointed Siamese have existed for only a couple of decades and Balinese red points are just
starting to emerge considering the much work needed in order to improve and diversify these lines and
produce outstanding red points within the Balinese breed. One current flaw that's currently being
tackled by breeders the removal of the tabby markings seen in present red pointed Siamese/Balinese
Though some kittens/cats show profound “ghost striping”; which are faint tabby marks that later
disappear with age, red points happen to still carry tabby marks after this period due to their tabby
cat background. I hope to one day produce red pointed old-style Balinese cats that neither produce
nor ever show these tabby marks; but to produce a balanced point like of the primary pointed coloring
of the Balinese.
I'm currently working with close mentors and Balinese breeders to have this accomplished but it
could take years. Azureys has plans to produce Red points to better improve these lines, so please
Red-pointed cats were first produced in other breeds such as the Persian as cat fanciers wished to produce purebred lines with the color of the red tabby cat. It's said that by accident Siamese cats would breed with red tabby cats that would later produce these red-pointed Siamese cats, but the same could have been the case with trying to produce Siamese cats with red points by past cat fanciers.
The first records of flame pointed Siamese cats appeared in the 1930s. In 1948, United Kingdom breeder Nora Archer, with the help of other breeders, started working profoundly with the Siamese breed to produce red points. Miss Ray, another breeder working with red points, worked very hard in trying to establish red/flame pointed only breeding lines, to better eliminate the problems of the tabby striping and in having the color point recognized by cat registries.
After many attempts, the GCCF; The Governing Council of the Cat Fancy, didn't allow registration of the red points as an actual Siamese, but as a Foreign Shorthair cat, which Miss Ray and other breeders did not accept. This was unacceptable to many red pointed Siamese breeders who felt it should be considered part of the Siamese breed, as it was of Siamese type and eye color. It was also a pure Siamese cat, genetically speaking in terms of the cats being bred Siamese to Siamese lines only for more than 10 generations of the original outcross. She wasn't successful in seeing the red pointed Siamese recognized, which occurred in the year 1971, after her death.
Since then, red points have been catching up as one of the popular rare colors of the Siamese and Balinese breeds, but they're still a work in progress in the United States. Registries in the United Kingdom have been much more organized in only allowing certain red point Siamese and their lines accepted as actual pure Siamese cats, due to their Siamese genetic and breeding lineage concentration, thus having more diversified lines to work with in Europe.
You might have not known this, but there are also Siamese/Balinese cats with tortoise shell/freckled points. Due to the same red/orange gene available to the Siamese/Balinese that caused the red points to occur, this same gene can cause a difference in appearance for Siamese/Balinese cats with a different genetic Chromosome sequence.
The red/orange gene is only present and carried in the X chromosome strand. Females carry the paired XX chromosomes and males carry the paired XY, this is what also determines gender. This means a female cat needs to inherit 2 (X) red/point strands in order to be a red point, and a male only needs to inherit 1 (X) to be a red point.
For this reason, litters from either a Tortie and/or Red point cat mainly produce Tortie females, and Red point males. It is rare to produce red point females but they have occurred in the past through successful breedings between red points/tortie points to concentrate the red/orange gene more in the genetic sequence.
Tortie points are an acquired taste to some, but they have much increased in popularity as the
“other” type of point available to the Siamese/Balinese pointed colors. I have seen very beautiful
Tortie point Balinese cats and they are rarity to see.
A Foreign White Siamese or Foreign White Balinese cat is a purebred Siamese/Balinese cat without
color points or markings but have the physical appearance and deep blue eyes of the
They are completely white in color, and they carry a Siamese color point genetically beneath its
This means that under the white coat, there's either a seal, blue, chocolate or lilac pointed Siamese or
Balinese cat; genetically speaking of course! Because of this, here at Azureys Cats we like to describe
them as "
" because they are "white pointed" cats concealing their true pointed colors.
True Foreign White cats descent from the original and initial breeding stock of Patricia Turner
(Scintilla Cattery) that took place in the 1960's and produced the first and true
Foreign White Siamese cat. The Foreign White cat is the only type of cat that can be completely white in
color and have blue eyes without the risk of deafness. Due to this special combination, they
are considered very unique and rare cats.
Cats that do not carry the gene for color point, and that are not direct
descendants of the first breeding of Foreign White Siamese cats (Lisvane Lilac Domino & Orchid Lilias),
NOT considered real Foreign White Siamese or Balinese cats.
Foreign white cats are coded as W 67 under the
Fédération Internationale Féline (FIFE), which is a
major international cat association. They are the only cat association to respect and
regard the Foreign White Siamese and Balinese cat in its true form.
A white Oriental breed cat with eyes of blue (W 61), green (W64) or odd-eyes (W63), or a breeding cross
of Siamese to Khao Mannee or other white colored cat breed is NOT considered a real Foreign White (W 67)
Siamese or Balinese cat. The initial breeding of the Foreign White Siamese was made possible many years
ago in the 1960's by crossing a white British Short hair cat to a Siamese. That interbreeding produced the
first White Siamese cats that were later used to make the foundation for the Foreign White.
Those foundation cats were then only bred to Siamese blood lines to concentrate their genes and
breed standard (genetics, appearance and personality). This
was made possible by breeding strictly Siamese to Siamese over many decades, which is why they
are considered pure Siamese cats due to their extensive lineage. For this reason deafness is almost
non-existent in the Foreign White cat, due to its Siamese genetics.
Foreign white Siamese and Balinese cats are very rare and non-existent in the United States at the time
of writting this in 2013. Some breeders in the States are working to establish breeding programs for the
rare color. In all actuality only a few breeding lines from the original outcross of the Foreign white
Siamese exist in European countries, but they are usually of the extreme look due to the "modern" registry
standards that also exists in Europe. Now imagine how rare it would be to find a real Foreign white
Siamese or Balinese cat of the Old-Style standard, it's...almost nonexistent at this time.
At Azureys Cats
working to establish a Foreign White breeding program of Old-Style standard, with purity in mind
(Siamese and Balinese cat lines only),
as Foreign White cat breeder pioneer; Patricia Turner did by breeding only
with traditional color pointed Siamese cats.
Foreign White Siamese History
With the popularity and rise of the Siamese cat breed in England in the early - mid 1900's, it is said
that English cat fanciers
wanted to produce a cat with the same personality, appearance, and deep blue eyes of the Siamese but in a
completely white coat. Cat fanciers knew that this was neary impossible, as there were genetic problems in
producing a cat with such traits. Some of those problems included: partial or total deafness, degradation
of vision, production of melanin (skin, hair color) , infertility and vitality in the overall health of
A completely white colored animal with blue eyes does not occur naturally without genetic consequences.
Animals that are completely white are mainly defined as albinos, where the gene responsible for albinism
doesn't allow for dark blue eyes to occur but pinkish- red eyes due to the abnormality. In order to produce
a white cat with blue eyes would involve the consequence of producing one with deafness and other genetic
consequences already seen in today’s completely white cats with blue eyes.
The first recorded attempt to produce a white Siamese cat was in the 1960s with the efforts of
Patricia Turner, a profound cat geneticist and breeder (Scintilla Cattery) at the time. Patricia Turner received inspiration
when she saw a photograph of a lilac point Siamese cat with very faded color points, giving the appearance
of a completely white Siamese with eyes of dark blue.
This picture inspired Patricia Turner to produce a white cat that had naturally blue eyes without any
genetic defects and deafness. She realized the genetic importance of the Siamese cat breed in terms of
and the blue eyes associated with this genetic mutation. She then established a breeding program with
other trusted breeders with the goal of producing a white colored Siamese with naturally blue eyes, and
without genetic defects, so to avoid deafness.
At the start of her Foreign White Siamese cat breeding program, Patricia Turner bred a white British
Short hair cat named Orchid Lilias with a Lilac point Siamese cat named Lisvane Lilac Domino.
The offspring resulted in cats with the C/cs
genetic code which was for cats that carried the Siamese pointed gene but were not true Siamese cats.
Patricia chose cats from this breeding that were white with gold-brown eyes. They were classified as F1;
the first generation offspring. From these chosen individuals, Patricia Turner then bred them back to pure seal point Siamese cats.
Patricia Turner encountered some difficulties in achieving a true white Siamese early on in her
program due to the resulting mix of genetics that produced deafness in the dominant white cats.
For this reason she striclty bred these offspring back to Siamese cats with seal points, so to increase
the genetic concentration for darker blue eyes common in seal points, but mainly to avoid the production
of deafness in the dominant (W) white cats. The same breeding combination was repeated for the F2, F3,
F4, and F5 generations.
Finally in 1965, after the 6th-7th generation of breeding back to the Siamese cat, Patricia produced the
of only Siamese kittens, and Foreign white Siamese which included
Scintilla Ching Jen born January 22nd, 1965. She was the first Foreign White
Siamese Cat to be registered.
From then on it was her breeding policy to continue
to breed Foreign White Siamese cats to Siamese cats of pointed color, preferably to Seal and blue points
to produce the darkest blue eyes possible, and to avoid genetic problems that could arise if
bred to other colors not included in the Siamese classification.
During and after Patricia Turner's breeding efforts, other breeders were experimenting in producing
their own White Siamese. Some breeding programs took place in Scottland, the Netherlands and other
European countries. Many of those White Siamese lines were discontinued or eliminated due to the increase of deafness
and genetic instability among the offspring.
The main reason for this was due to these breeders using red points, tortie points, and other cats of
different colors that had the "O" or orange gene. This gene was associated with the Waardenburg syndrome.
The waardenburg syndrome is a genetic disorder that inhibits the normal function of the ear, and melanin
production (skin, hair color). Melanocyte melanin producing cells are restricted due to the Waardenburg
syndrome; absence of melanocytes affects pigmentation in the skin, hair, and eyes, and hearing function
in the cochlea. The waardenburg syndrome has been found to be in close association to the "O" gene when
breeding for white cats. Cats that are naturally orange or red coated which carry the "O" gene are not
deaf due to not having the genetics for dominant white (W).
The partial albinism gene seen in the Siamese cat breed is responsible in producing cats that aren't
deaf due to influencing the production of Tapetum lucidum (layer of tissue) in the ears, thus preventing
deafness in these cats.
Tapetum lucidum is generated from the same stem cells associated with the inner ear tissue melanocytes
(pigment cells). Cats that are white with blue eyes have no Tapetum lucidum in the ears thus creating
deafness. The partial albinism gene found in the Siamese cat breed protects the tissue from being
destroyed, hence a white cat with blue eyes without deafness can be produced. The Foreign White Siamese
is the only white cat with blue eyes that can both hear and have tapetum lucidum present in their eyes.
For this reason it is very important for the Foreign White Siamese/Balinese cat breeder to avoid breeding a
Foreign White cat with cats with the "O" gene. This includes red points, cream points, and tortie points
of all colors. It is also not allowed to breed a Foreign White cat to another Foreign White cat, as it
could bring back the Waardenburg syndrome by concentrating the past genes once present in the Dominant
White (W) ancestor of the cat. For this reason some associations do not allow the breeding of a
Foreign White cat to an Oriental breed cat due to their mix of genetics and colors.
Foreign White Balinese Cat History
With the discovery of the reccesive long-haired gene in Siamese Cats in the United States and Europe in
the late 1900's, cat fanciers sought to produce a purebred foreign white long-haired Siamese cat;
Foreign White Balinese cat.
In order to produce such a cat, Balinese cats were bred to Foreign White Siamese cats in order to
produce Foreign White Siamese (VAR) with the long-haired gene (referred to as Variant cats). These Variant
Siamese cats who were pure Siamese with the long-haired gene but not long-hairs themselves, were then
bred back to a Balinese in order to produce the Foreign White Balinese cat.
From then on many of these breeding lines were used as the foundation of other Siamese and Balinese
cats in Europe and abroad, including the still very rare Foreign White classification of Siamese and
Balinese cats. Though anyone can produce a Foreign White Balinese cat by breeding a Foreign White
Siamese cat to a Balinese cat, the first and oldest line produced comes from the Chatonel breeding program.
In terms of the Foreign White Siamese cat classification; it is also applied to the Foreign White Balinese
cat as they are also regarded as (W 67) under the
Fédération Internationale Féline (FIFE)
cat association due to their Foreign White Siamese color, lineage and origin. Genetically a Foreign
White Balinese cat is also coded as cs/cs
which is determined by the color point restriction specific to only the Siamese and Balinese cat
If a White long-haired cat with blue eyes is not genetically coded as
cs/cs and its pedigree does not show the first
Foreign White Siamese cat (Scintilla Ching Jen) produced, then it is not a real Foreign White Balinese cat, Period. This cat
will most likely be a mixed breed cat out of a dominant white (W) cat, Khao
Manee breed cross (Siamese look) or White Oriental Long-hair (W 61).
At this time the Foreign White Balinese cat is very, very rare due to its reccesive long-haired gene.
Keep in mind that if the long-haired gene is not preserved by only breeding to a Balinese, it can be lost
when breeding back to a Siamese Variant cat or Siamese cat without the long-haired gene. Foreign White
Siamese cats bred to Oriental breed cats, and other cats not purely Siamese or Balinese can produce
White Orientals (W 61) and not the true Foreign White Balinese. The only way
to determine which cat is a true Foreign White (W 67) is to have blood
testing done to determine which genetic coding the cat has.
Foreign White Cat Rarity & Genetics
Foreign White Siamese cats are very rare and Foreign White Balinese cats are even rarer because of
their long-haired quality. They are becoming harder to find and even to breed as some breeders do not
aim to preserve breeding lines purely as Siamese or Balinese bloodlines. Due to this, Foreign White
breeding lines are becoming more distant and lost.
The reason for this is due to some cat associations considering the Foreign White Siamese as an
cat and changing their breeding policies by allowing them to be interbred with the Oriental cat breed,
even Foreign White cats with pure Siamese lineage/bloodlines with no Oriental cat breed ancestry.
For example, some cat associations are now allowing Oriental breed cats to be bred with Foreign Whites,
eventually losing these foreign white cat lines, as they produce cats of other colors (non-pointed) and
producing White Orientals with blue eyes (W61), which look like Foreign Whites but are not Foreign White
Siamese cats, genetically speaking.
For this reason tests exist to determine which cat is a real Siamese or Balinese Foreign White cat,
and not a "copy-cat". A DNA test can be processed by the
Veterinary Medicine-at UC Davis to determine this.
Genetically a Foreign White Siamese or Balinese cat is coded as
which is determined by the color point restriction specific to only the Siamese and Balinese cat breed.
Oriental breed cats that are blue eyed and of a white coat are coded as CC
(Oriental breed cat) or
C/cs if the cat is a color point (Siamese cat) carrier but not a true Siamese cat.
These new policies and cat breeder mentalities have not only caused harm to the pure Foreign White
Siamese/Balinese lines that breeders seek to preserve and improve the lines with, but these cats with
Oriental breed parentage have a higher probability of producing offspring with green eyes and different
color designs not known to the Siamese/Balinese cat breed.
Oriental breed cats also come in a complete white coat color, which closely resembles a foreign white,
but once more they are NOT pure Siamese or Siamese cats genetically speaking. They cannot produce foreign
white offspring as well, only an actual foreign white cat can.
It has been noted that Foreign White cats (W67) that are offspring from an Oriental cat often times
have spotting in its coat that later disappears with age. This has also been seen in cats that are
offspring of a lynx point or tabby colored cat, which could be the result of its genetic combination.
On the other hand, White Orientals (W61) are born and remain with some faint spotting in its head
and/or body. This is actually a good indicator that it is not a true Foreign White Siamese (W67) but
an Oriental White cat (W61).
Though there are breeders that endorse breeding Foreign white Siamese to Oriental lineage cats
(we are not talking about Foreign White cats registered as Orientals that are of Siamese lineage only),
we have to keep in mind that those who have and are currently breeding Foreign White's have enough
reasoning against this type of breeding. We endorse breeding Foreign White Siamese/Balinese cats with
only Traditional colored Siamese and/or Balinese cats. No red, cream, tortie or lynx points, and no
Oriental lines, period. There are plenty of Siamese or Balinese outcrosses to introduce new blood if
Foreign White cats may become completely extinct if Siamese/Balinese breeders don't aim to preserve
these pure lines or establish pure lines for the future.
Foreign White Siamese & Balinese Cat Breeding Practices
The Foreign White Siamese-Balinese cat is such a special and unique cat that it requires special
breeding practices, and guidelines.
For this reason some cat associations require that all Foreign White Siamese/Balinese cats receive hearing tests,
such as the Brain Auditory Evoked Response "BAER" Test. The reason for this is because of the
Foreign White cat being a white and blue-eyed cat. Though they are not known for deafness; due to their Siamese
genetics prohibiting the lack of hearing, it is ethical for a breeder to ensure all Foriegn White kittens
from a breeding program are not deaf. This is only confirmed through a
BAER Test performed by a specialized vetarinarian.
A Foreign white Siamese or Balinese cat should NOT be bred to the following:
Another Foreign white Siamese or Balinese- The reason for this is due to some registries not allowing
this breeding because of the risk of the Waardenburg disease of deafness coming about in the breeding
lines and/or being concentrated in the breeding of Foreign white cats
Red points, cream points, tortie points and other cats with the "O" Gene: The reason for this is due to these color points having
the "O" gene that can result in the occurrence of the Waardenburg disease that causes deafness
Lynx points/Javanese cats: Past and experienced Foreign White Siamese/Balinese cat breeders have
advised against breeding the foreign white to lynx points due to the resulting offspring producing
temporary spotting in the forehead and body. If permanent spotting occurs, it is not a true Foreign White
Siamese or Balinese cat but a White-blue eyed Oriental breed cat (W61).
Foreign White Siamese/Balinese cats can produce traditional color pointed kittens when bred to a
Siamese/Balinese cat of a traditional color point. In terms of genetics, the Foreign White (W67) Siamese/Balinese
cat's white coat "masks" their color-points, which is why when bred to a traditional color pointed cat there is a 50% probability in
white kittens, and 50% color pointed kittens that can result in that breeding.
Further Information on the Foreign White Siamese Cat
To learn more of the Foreign White Siamese and the breeding practices involving it, please read/visit:
30 Years of Breeding Foreign White cats,
by Hetty Berntrop from the UK
As true Balinese cat preservationists, we want to introduce, produce and preserve breeding lines as
they should be, and it includes this wonderful Balinese cat variety: The Foreign White Balinese cat (W67).
Due to these cats being of the extreme-modern standard, we will be working to introduce Siamese and/or
Balinese Foreign White lines and breed them over to the original standard of the Balinese cat, which is
the traditional; Old-Style Standard. We will do this by breeding those breeding lines to our cats, and
producing cats of
superb quality of health and appearance: healthier immune systems, longer haired, good ear set, and dark
We will be preserving these lines pure without any Oriental cat breed lines & red and O gene color
Only the 4 traditional colors will be used to breed to our Foreign White Siamese/Balinese cats, which will
ensure the longevity of this true blue eyed white cat of only Siamese/Balinese cat bloodlines.